Drafting of the constitution was done by the constituent assembly. M.N Roy proposed the idea of making of constituent assembly in 1934. It was further accepted by the British Government in 1940,which is also known as the 'August Offer'.
The Constituent Assembly was formulated in November month of 1946 under cabinet mission plan. The Constituent assembly had a total of 389 members, out of which 292 members in the making of constituent assembly for drafting of the constitution were the state representatives as these seats were allotted to the British India. 93 seats were allotted to the princely states. 4 members were basically the chief commissioners of the provinces.
The seats allocated to the British were divided as per the community i.e. Muslims, Sikhs and General. Among the members, representative of each community were to be elected by the method of single transferable vote. Whereas the head of the princely states had to nominate the representatives for their seats.
The election of the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946.The Constituent Assembly was quite versatile in terms of members, since it had members from almost all the sections of the community.(Including Hindu, Sikh , Parsis , Anglo-Indian, Muslim, Schedule Caste, Schedule Tribes, Christians) This was one of the important event which took place in making of constituent assembly for drafting of the constitution. Well, it's a lesser known fact that even after being the most important personality who played the biggest role in the Independence of India i.e. Shri Mahatma Gandhi , he was not the member of constituent assembly. After the independence of India , the members of constituent assembly reduced to 299 members.
Drafting Committee : For drafting of the constitution , drafting committee was formed on 29th of August 1947. There were seven members in the drafting committee which was headed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as a chairman of the drafting committee.
Before introducing the final draft of the constitution, The first draft was introduced in the month of February,1948. Further, it was into discussion phase, the purpose of having a discussion phase on the first draft was to check thoroughly if there are any latches/loop holes in the draft then it should be amended in the final draft. This was the main purpose of making of constituent assembly.
The final draft of the constitution was introduced on 4th of November 1948. There were total of three readings before the final enactment of the constitution. It means even after the introduction of the final draft on 4th of November , It went for further three readings to make sure that its absolute in nature. The whole perspective behind the drafting of the constitution was to provide a rulebook with keeping the interest of the country as a whole.
Let me tell you one more interesting fact related to the drafting of Indian constitution which happened on 26th of November 1949, the day on which the motion on drafting constitution was passed . only 284 members out of 299 members only 284 members were present to sign the constitution on that day. These facts are quiet interesting to know either its about the making of constituent assembly or drafting of the constitution
In fact , The draft of the constitution was discussed for over 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before finalizing it .
Finally, On 26th of November 1949, The Indian Constitution was adopted and on 26th of January 1950 it came into force. This was the day we got our Indian constitution. From then, The Indian Constitution is considered as supreme law of the land. From then onwards, This auspicious day is celebrated as Republic Day.