Preamble of the Indian constitution is an introductory or preliminary statement which describes and gives us source, pattern, and object of the constitution.
Preamble of the Constitution plays a crucial role in guiding the people of the state and to present the principles of the constitution. Preamble is treated as a part of the constitution as its a short introduction of the constitution which provides the objectives, purposes, nature, and scope of the constitution.
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure all its citizens :
JUSTICE: social, economic and political;
LIBERTY: of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship;
EQUALITY: of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY: assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day if November 1949, do hereby ADOPT, ENACT, AND GIVE OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Now, Let's understand the basic structure of Preamble Of The Constitution. If we notice, then we can easily figure out that Preamble of the Indian Constitution has been divided into four parts. Every part of the preamble has a separate meaning and has been formed in that manner. Let's start discussing all the parts of the preamble step by step.
1st Part of the preamble of the constitution talks about the origin or source of the constitution. It actually describes where the constitution of India has originated. By using the phrase "WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA" it clearly conveys a strong message that the sovereignty lies in the people of India. The wholesome authority is the will of the people. Therefore, the origin or source of the constitution is the people of India itself.
2nd Part of the preamble talks about the type of government India has opted for by using strong words like Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, and Republic state. Every single word used in the Preamble Of The Constitution has intense meaning and carries a lot of worth.We will discuss of these terms one by one. The word sovereign in preamble of the Indian constitution tells us that India is a free nation from within and without. It means India is an independent country and no one has control over India either from within India or from any foreign power. Indian doesn't come under any outside authority as its an independent country and highly capable of managing their affairs of their own. India is not under rule or influence by any other country.
The word Socialist in preamble of the constitution refers to the social and economic equality of every citizen of the country. By social equality it means, the abolishment of any sort of discrimination against the people on any ground maybe it caste, color, religion, sex, language, origin. Under social equality, every single citizen of India has the right to enjoy equal status and opportunities within the country irrespective of their background, literacy level, or any ground. Next comes the economic equality which is part of the same socialist word which is mentioned in preamble of the Indian constitution, It refers to providing an equal distribution of wealth and providing a decent standard of living for every citizen of India. Its the duty of the country to assure economic as well as social equality of its citizens and providing them a decent living standard.
The word Democratic in preamble of the constitution says that the constitution of India provides a parliamentary form of government in which the powers are actually vested in the people of India in the form of the right to vote and elect the government to work as their representative to run the state.
The word Republic in preamble of the Indian constitution refers to that India doesn't follow the principles of hereditary monarch rather it works on an elected functionary mechanism. Here, The President is the head of the state. well, if we talk practically then, we can see that President is the nominal head of the state, unlike the United States where the president is the actual head of the state and enjoys all the decision-making powers of the state. In the Indian form of government, the Prime Minister enjoys the real power of the state with the help of the council of ministers.
The word Socialist and Secular were not originally in the preamble of the constitution rather it was added by the 42nd constitutional amendment act, 1976 after the emergency period during the Prime-Ministership of Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
3rd Part of preamble of the Indian constitution talks about the aims, objectives, and purposes of the constitution.
This part of the preamble of the constitution, talks about JUSTICE, LIBERTY, EQUALITY, and FRATERNITY. Now, let's understand the meaning of each word in the constitutional context.
JUSTICE: Here Justice is measured on three parameters, those are justice in terms of social ground, economic ground, and justice in terms of political ground. It means that the state shall promote the welfare of the people and maintain social order for the betterment of the citizens of the country and the country itself.
LIBERTY: The word equality is mentioned in preamble of the Indian constitution, The state shall take care of the fundamental rights of every citizen of the country. Every citizen has the liberty of thought, expression, faith, and worship, and no one can take these rights from them, not even the state, Here's a nothing to be noted that liberty is not absolute that means it has some restrictions and it must be used in a reasonable manner.
EQUALITY: The word equality is mentioned in preamble of the constitution, which states that every person of this country has equal status before the country. There should not be any discrimination on any ground. In order to assure this phenomenon, our constitution provides a set of fundamental rights to every citizen of India.
FRATERNITY: Preamble of the Indian constitution talks about the fraternity. Fraternity means brotherhood, It says every citizen must have a feeling of brotherhood or belongingness to the country and towards the people of the country. Fraternity helps to promote the dignity and unity of the nation.
4th Part of preamble of the constitution talks about the adoption and enactment of the constitution. It says that the constitution of India is adopted, enacted, and given by the people of India on the 26th of November 1949.
Summary: Preamble of the Indian constitution is part of the constitution, it plays a significant role in interpreting the provisions of the constitution with reference to the amendment. Although, the preamble is an introduction of the constitution but it is not just limited to the introduction, as it can be clearly seen in the judgment of the Hon'ble Supreme Court in the case of Keshavanand Bharati Vs State Of Kerela 1973, where the court said that the basic feature or foundation of the constitution is easily visible from the preamble of the constitution.